How Long do i Cook a Turkey

Cooking a turkey is a time-honored tradition, especially during the holiday or for special gatherings. A flawlessly cooked turkey is the result of careful attention to not only cooking time but also cooking method, temperature, and prior preparation. In this detailed tutorial, I’ll show you how to prepare the perfect turkey every time, with all the information you need to serve your guests a meal they’ll always remember.

Preparing the Turkey

Before we delve into the cooking process, let’s prepare the turkey. Proper preparation sets the stage for a successful roast.

1 Selecting the Right Turkey

The first step is choosing the right turkey. You’ll need to consider the size of your turkey, the number of guests, and any leftovers you’d like to have. A good rule of thumb is to estimate about 1 pound (0.45 kg) of turkey per person. Cooking two tiny turkeys instead of one large one is a good option if you need to feed a large group.

2 Thawing Turkey

If you purchased a frozen turkey, it’s essential to thaw it properly before cooking. Thawing frozen meals in the fridge is the safest option. It takes roughly 24 hours for a turkey weighing 4.5 pounds (2.0 kg) to defrost from frozen. To prevent any messes, place the turkey in a plastic bag or on a tray.

3 Brining (Optional)

Turkeys are often brined by soaking them in a mixture of water, salt, and occasionally sugar and spices. Turkeys that have been brined tend to have a greater taste and stay more juicy. To brine a turkey, place it in a big container with the brine solution and refrigerate it for 12 to 24 hours. Rinse the turkey thoroughly after brining to remove any excess salt.

4 Seasoning and Trussing

Before roasting the turkey, it should be heavily seasoned with pepper and salt and any other spices or herbs you like. To make your turkey taste better, stuff it with things like onions, garlic, and herbs. Before cooking, you can truss the turkey by tying the legs together with kitchen thread. This makes the turkey cook more evenly and looks better on the plate.

Cooking the Turkey

Now that your turkey is prepped, let’s move on to the cooking process itself. There are several methods to choose from, but we’ll focus on roasting, which is the most traditional and widely used method.

1 Preheating the Oven

Prepare a baking dish and turn the oven on to 325 degrees Fahrenheit (163 degrees Celsius). It’s crucial to let the oven get up to temperature before putting in the turkey.

2 Roasting Turkey

Roasting Pan and Rack

Place the turkey on a roasting rack in a large roasting pan. Elevating the turkey on a rack allows hot air to circulate evenly around it, promoting even cooking and crispy skin.

Basting (Optional)

To “baste” a turkey, you ladle the pan drippings or any other tasty liquid (such as melted butter or broth) over the bird at regular intervals during cooking. While some people swear by basting for a more flavorful turkey, it’s optional and not always necessary.

Cooking Time

The cooking time for a turkey depends on its size and whether it’s stuffed or unstuffed. Here are some general guidelines for cooking an unstuffed turkey:

  • Turkey Weight: Cooking Time (Approximate)
  • 8-12 pounds (3.6-5.4 kg): 2.5-3 hours
  • 12-16 pounds (5.4-7.3 kg): 3-3.5 hours
  • 16-20 pounds (7.3-9.1 kg): 3.5-4 hours
  • 20-24 pounds (9.1-10.9 kg): 4-4.5 hours

These are approximate times, and using a meat thermometer to determine doneness is crucial. A 165°F (74°C) thermometer reading in the thickest region of the thigh indicates that the turkey is ready to be served. Thermometers can be inaccurate if they come into contact with bone.

Tenting with Foil

Tenting the turkey with aluminum foil during the final hour of cooking will keep the skin from getting too brown. This helps the turkey cook evenly without over-browning.

3 Resting Turkey

Take the turkey out of the oven when it reaches the correct internal temperature and let it rest for at least twenty to thirty minutes before cutting into it. By giving the turkey time to rest, the liquids can redistribute, making for a juicier final product.

Carving and Serving

Though it may seem daunting at first, carving a turkey is rather simple.

1 Carving Turkey


You’ll need a sharp carving knife and a carving fork. A cutting board with a groove to catch juices is also helpful.


  1. Begin by removing the legs and thighs. Cut through the skin between the breast and leg, then use your knife to separate the leg from the body. Repeat for the other leg.
  2. Cut through the joint and remove the drumstick from the thigh.
  3. Carve the breast meat by making thin, even slices across the grain.
  4. If you’ve stuffed the turkey, scoop out the stuffing into a serving dish.

2 Serving

Arrange the carved turkey on a platter, garnish with herbs or fruits, and serve it with your favorite side dishes, gravy, and cranberry sauce. To prevent spoilage, keep any leftover turkey in the refrigerator within two hours of cooking.

Troubleshooting and Tips

1 Troubleshooting Common Issues

Dry Turkey

Use a meat thermometer to make sure the turkey reaches an internal temperature of 165°F (or 74° Celsius) in the thigh. This will keep the bird from becoming dry. To keep the meat from drying out, baste or salt it.

Overcooked Skin

Tenting with foil can prevent the skin from overcooking. You can also start roasting the turkey at a higher temperature (around 450°F/232°C) for the first 30 minutes, then reduce it to 325°F (163°C) for the remainder of the cooking time.

2 Tips for Success

  • Use a meat thermometer to monitor the turkey’s internal temperature.
  • Let the turkey rest before carving to retain its juices.
  • Experiment with different seasonings and flavorings for a unique twist.
  • Consider cooking the stuffing separately to ensure it reaches a safe temperature.
  • Organize your cooking time so that all of your dishes are ready at the same time.

Cooking a turkey is a rewarding culinary experience that can bring friends and family together for a memorable meal. While the process may seem daunting, with proper preparation, cooking, and carving techniques, you can achieve a perfectly cooked turkey that will be the highlight of your gathering. If, at first, you don’t succeed perfectly, keep in mind that practice makes perfect. Roasting a turkey is an acquired skill, and with each bird you prepare, you’ll gain valuable knowledge that will help you perfect the art. The time spent cooking and sharing a turkey dinner with loved ones is time well spent.

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